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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic Kidney Disease Basic

PKD basics

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an genetic kidney disorder featured with numerous fluid-filled cysts in both of kidneys.With age, the cysts enlarge persistently and and replace more and more healthy kidney tissues. Kidney failure will be the final result.

Types of PKD

PKD can be divided into two types:autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and the less common autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease( ARPKD).


ADPKD covers up to 90% of all cases of PKD in clinic. It is also known as Adult PKD as the patients often start to develop symptoms and signs at adults between ages of 30 and 40. If one of parent has ADPKD,each child (both boy and girl) has 50% likelihood of getting the disease.


In clinic,ARPKD is rarely seen.The symptoms often appear shortly after birth,but some patients may develop symptoms later in childhood or during adolescence. If both of parents carry the diseased gene, each child will have 25% chance of getting the disease. If only one parent has the abnormal gene, the children will not be affected.

What are the symptoms of PKD?

The most common symptom of PKD is high blood pressure. Other symptoms are:

*Pain in the back and side

*Hematuria ( blood in urine)

*Frequent kidney infections

*Kidney stone

Tests and diagnosis of PKD

Several diagnostic methods should be used to get a diagnosis of PKD.

*Ultrasound examination

If you have symptoms of PKD or if you are at risk of the disease,an ultrasound examination will be performed.An ultrasound exam uses sound waves to create a picture of your organs and can detect cysts on the kidneys.

*CT or MRI

If you are a PKD sufferer, you are very likely to develop a brain aneurysm.CT or MRI will be recommended to check for an aneurysm.

* Renal function test

Renal function test can be done to evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning.

The above is the basic information about PKD. For more facts about the disease like PKD treatment, you can chat with our medical professional now!

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Polycystic Kidney Disease Symptoms

PKD symptoms

In early stage of polycystic kidney disease (PKD),the patients usually develop no symptoms.However,as the cysts enlarge, more and more symptoms will appear.Most of the patients start to develop symptoms between ages of 30s to 40s.Common the symptoms of PKD include:

High blood pressure

High blood pressure is an early sign of PKD.It is because that the enlarged cysts cause renal ischemia and anoxia, which can cause increased production of renin.Increased renin can elevate blood pressure.


Flank pain or abdominal pain are commonly seen in PKD.A major cause is the enlargement of kidney cysts.Meanwhile,the pain may caused by urinary tract infection, kidney stone etc. These conditions are common complications of PKD.

Cerebral aneurysm

Cerebral aneurysm can be seen in PKD.If the patients have this condition,the patients will experience headache.If the cerebral vessels rupture, it can be life-threatening.

Urinary tact infection

A urinary tract infection can be one of the first symptoms that might bring us to a doctor.

Hematuria (blood in urine)

Blood in urine is a common sign of PKD. One of the most common causes is rupturing of the cysts. Meanwhile, it may due to kidney stone or urinary tract infection.

Kidney stone

Kidney stone has a 30% higher incidence among PKD patients.

Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion is present in greater than 45% among people with PKD and is also inconsequential.

Cysts in other organs

In PKD, cysts not only occur in kidneys, but also can be found in other vital organs like liver, ovarian etc. In general, the cysts in other organs do not cause a very serious effect.

Other common symptoms of PKD may include:


-Increase in the size of abdomen

-Frequent urination



The above are the general symptoms of PKD and they are not always work for everyone. If your symptoms are not included in the above context, you can leave a message below to get a detailed list of PKD symptoms.

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Polycystic Kidney Disease Treatment

PKD treatment

Polycystic kidney disease is a very serious condition.Up to 50% of patients will develop kidney failure by age 60.Therefore, early and effective treatment should intervened as early as possible. What are the treatment options for PKD?

Symptomatic treatment

Symptomatic treatment is the most common treatment option for people with PKD.When pain occurs,pain medicines will be prescribed.If blood pressure is higher than normal,medicines will be given to lower it.While symptomatic treatment can slow the disease progression,it is far enough to halt its progression.


If the enlarged cysts cause extreme pain,surgery may be performed to remove the cyst. It can relieve the pain to some extent.However,it is an invasive procedure.Also,the small cysts will become large soon if after the enlarged ones are removed.

Dialysis and kidney transplant

With age,the cysts will increase both in size and number.The enlarged cysts will replace more and more healthy nephrons, thus resulting in progressive renal function deterioration. Eventually,Kidney Failure will occur.Dialysis and kidney transplant is are still the first-line replacement treatments for kidney failure.

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is an external therapy based on traditional Chinese herbal medicine.Based on the patients' specific condition,certain herbal medicines are chosen and then these medicines will be shattered superfinely. The medicines become so tiny so that they can penetrate into renal lesion through skin permeation with the help of osmosis device. It works in the following ways to treat PKD.

*Chinese medicine can expand blood vessels, speed up blood circulation on cysts wall as well as improve permeability of the cysts.As a result, cystic fluid will be reabsorbed into blood vessels and then get discharged out of the body through urine. In this way,the cysts will stop enlarging.Meanwhile, the medicines can inactivate the epithelial cells on cysts wall and make the lost excretory ability so the cysts will stop enlarging.

*As the microcirculation in kidneys is improved,more oxygen and nutrients will be supplied to kidneys. The active substances can stimulate the self-regeneration f impaired kidney tissues, thus resulting in a renal function improvement.

The above are the common treatment options for PKD. You can choose a right one based on your condition and the advantages and disadvantages of the treatments.

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Polycystic Kidney Disease Diet﹠Fitness

PKD diet&fitness

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic kidney disease and associated with a very poor prognosis. While it can not be cured, a balanced management of diet and fitness can do a lot in controlling PKD.

Moderate exercise is an important part in managing PKD. It can improve the overall healthy condition and reduce the risk of associated complications.However,the patients should pay more attention to the types and intensity of exercise. Contact sports like football, basketball etc should be avoided. Meanwhile, you should avoid horseback riding, cross-country biking, and other repetitive impact sports, as they can cause blood to appear in your urine.

Consult with our online doctor and get to know what exercises are good to your condition.

In early stage, there is no restriction on the diet for PKD.The patients are recommended to drink more fluid, which can reduce the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI).

With the disease progression, the kidneys will fail to work to filter wastes from body.In this case,a diet low in protein is suggested. The recommended daily sodium intake should be less than 3g in order to keep blood pressure under control and reduce the retention of fluid in body and swelling. If the levels of phosphorus and potassium are higher than normal, the patients should cut down foods high in phosphorus and potassium in diet.

Additionally, the patients should give up smoking and keep drinking in moderation. Coffee and chocolate should be removed from their diet.

As the patients' condition varies from individual to individual, the diet should also be different. You can visit a renal dietitian and he/she can help you make a personalized diet plan or you can email to we will help you individualized suggestions on diet.

Being underweight or overweight can stress the body and accelerate renal function deterioration in PKD. So it is of significance for the patients to keep a healthy weight.

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